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Lexicon

Degenerative Myelopathy (DM dog)

In degenerative myelopathy (DM), the long spinal cord nerves slowly degenerate. As a result, symptoms develop such as reduced perception of stimuli, weakness of movement, loss of fine motor skills and finally complete paralysis of the hind and forehand.

Some time ago, a risk factor for the development of DM was discovered, a mutation in the superoxide dismutase 1 gene (SOD1 gene). SOD is an important free radical inhibitor in cells and prevents free radicals from causing significant damage to the genetic material and cell integrity. If this fails due to the mutation, the cells are increasingly damaged.

The disease occurs in many breeds, large dogs are particularly affected. The inheritance is autosomal recessive.

 

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Dermoid Sinus

Dermoid sinuses are malformations of the skin as a result of a genetic defect. In the area of the dorsal line, a tube-like invagination of the skin develops which varies individually in depth and opening and, in extreme cases, extends from the surface to the spine.

 

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Dominant Black (Coat colour K-Locus Dog)

The base colour of the dog is determined by the interaction of the the K locus (BlacK), A locus (Agouti) and the E locus (Extension). The alleles of these loci determine if and where the pigment eumelanin (black colour) and the pigment phaeomelanin (red colour) can be produced and how these two are distributed over the body.

The K locus has different alleles which determine if and where the pigment phaeomelanin can be produced in addition to eumelanin.

The KB allele is inherited dominantly and codes for a black coat colour, pheomelanin (red/light colour) cannot be produced additionally. The dog has a black coat colour over the whole body (Dominant Black).

 

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Dun (Dilution factor Horse)

Dun is a dilution of the base colour in combination with primitive markings (stripes on legs and one along the back). Dun is the original coat colour of all horses ("wild type"). Depending on the base colour of the horse, different colourings occur: Red Dun (chestnut), Yellow Dun (bay), Blue Dun (black).


Over time, two mutations have emerged that produce a different phenotype. The nd1 mutation allows a partial function of the gene, the horse then has a non-diluted coat colour (vibrant) with primitive markings ("pseudo dun"). The nd2 mutation switches off the gene function completely, so that the horse has a non-diluted coat colour without primitive markings. This is the most common phenotype in most horse breeds today.

 

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