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Lexicon

Predictive height test (HMGA2 Pony)

Height in animals depends on various factors (e.g. genes, environment and their combination). A genetic variation has been discovered for the height of ponies. A base pair in the HMGA2 gene can influence/reduce height in Shetland ponies and related breeds.

This test allows breeders to estimate the height of offspring. Here, the ponies are assigned to three height groups: A/A (Small: ~ 84 cm), A/G (Medium Small: ~ 98 cm) and G/G (Normal: ~ 104 cm).

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Predictive height test (LCORL Horse)

Height in animals depends on various factors (e.g. genes, environment and their combination). Genetic variation has been discovered for the Height of warmblood horses. A base pair in the LCORL regulatory unit (on the third chromosome) determines to a large extent what height the horse will become.

This test allows breeders to estimate the height of the offspring with an accuracy of 70% (+/- 5 cm). Here, the horses are assigned to three height groups: T/T (Normal height: ~ 159 cm), C/T (Medium height: ~ 164 cm) and C/C (Tall heigth: ~ 169 cm).

This genetic variation has a smaller effect on height in non-warmblood horses.

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Progressive retinal atrophy type 1 (GR-PRA 1 Golden Retriever)

Progressive retinal atrophy type I (GR-PRA 1) is caused by degeneration of the retinal photoreceptor cells and, in the course of the disease, the entire retina is destroyed. Affected animals go blind.

The hereditary disease is one of the three forms of PRA in the Golden Retriever. The inheritance is autosomal recessive.

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Progressive retinal atrophy type 2 (GR-PRA 2 Golden Retriever)

Progressive retinal atrophy type II (GR-PRA 2) is caused by degeneration of the retinal photoreceptor cells and, in the course of the disease, the entire retina is destroyed. Affected animals go blind.

The hereditary disease is one of the three forms of PRA in the Golden Retriever. The inheritance is autosomal recessive.

 

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Progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd-PRA Dog)

Progressive rod-cone degeneration (prcd-PRA) is caused by degeneration of the retinal photoreceptor cells and, in the course of the disease, the entire retina is destroyed. Affected animals go blind.

The hereditary disease is one of the three forms of PRA in the Golden Retriever, but also occurs in many other breeds. The inheritance is autosomal recessive.

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PSSM1 (Polysaccharide Storage Myopathy 1 Horse)

Polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM1) is a degenerative muscle disease caused by a disorder of sugar metabolism. Affected horses show symptoms such as reluctance to move, muscle tremors and tension.

The disease occurs in many breeds. The inheritance is incomplete autosomal dominant.

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PSSM2 (Equine Myopathy Horse)

Exercise intolerance often associated with intermittent lameness, stiffness, and muscle atrophy

Equine myopathy is a collective term for a number of related muscle diseases with similar clinical symptoms.

These are adult-onset with most symptoms developing after 7-10 years of age (depending on breed and environment); mild symptoms may be obvious at a younger age.

A selection of involved genes can be investigated by DNA tests.

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Recessive black (Coat colour A-Locus Dog)

The dog is black all over the body, the hairs are not bicoloured (brown/black) as in the other agouti genes. This colouration is caused by the recessive a allele of the Agouti locus.

 

See: Agouti (Fellfarbe A-Lokus Hund)

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Sabino-1 (Coat colour pattern Horse)

Horses with the Sabino-1 pattern often have white patches of different sizes with 'indistinct/fringed' borders especially on the head, belly and legs. Many horses have often white ticked hair on the rest of the body (animals with one copy of the gene: Sb1/n). Horses with two copies of the mutation (homozygous) are usually completely white.

 

Sabino-1 is a special form of White Spotting/Dominant White and is the most common, but not the only mutation causing this spotting pattern. Should a horse show a Sabino-like pattern but does not have an Sb1 mutation, other mutations in the KIT gene, the so-called W-variants, could be responsible.

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Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCID Horse)

Severe Combined Immunodeficiency Disease (SCID) causes an inactive immune system, leading to fatal infections and early death.

The disease occurs in Arabians and related breeds. The inheritance is autosomal recessive.

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