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Ectodermal dysplasia (ED Dog)

Ectodermal dysplasia (ED) is a skin disease in which affected puppies have extremely thin and fragile skin that peels off even when touched lightly. Puppies with this condition are usually euthanised immediately after birth.

The disease occurs in Chesapeake Bay Retrievers. It is inherited in an autosomal recessive manner.

Synonym: Skin fragility syndrome

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Exercise Induced Collapse (EIC Dog)

Exercise-induced collapse (EIC) is a neuromuscular disorder characterised by exercise intolerance in otherwise healthy dogs. The first signs begin within 2 minutes of strenuous exercise. Affected dogs then show a wobbly gait with weakness of the hind legs, coordination difficulties and general weakness. The cause is the malformation of dynamin 1 (DNM1), a neurotransmitter.

The hereditary disease occurs in the Labrador Retriever and other Retriever breeds. The inheritance is autosomal recessive.

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Extension | Chestnut (Base colour E-Locus Horse)

Three base colours occur in the horse: Chestnut (reddish), Black and Bay (Brown).The base colour is determined by the combination of the Extension locus (E) and Agouti locus (A).


The Extension locus (E) controls the production of the black pigment 'eumelanin' in the melanocytes.

If the gene is altered and non-functional (ee), the black pigment cannot be produced and the horse has a chestnut coat colour. Horses with one or two intact copies of the extension gene (EE, Ee) are either bay or black (depending on the Agouti gene).

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Extension (Coat colour E-Locus Dog)

The base colour of the dog is determined by the interaction of the the E locus (Extension), A locus (Agouti) and the K locus (BlacK). The alleles of these loci determine if and where the pigment eumelanin (black colour) and the pigment phaeomelanin (red colour) can be produced and how these two are distributed over the body.

The E locus has different alleles which determine whether and where the dark pigment eumelanin can be produced. If eumelanin cannot be produced, the dogs show a light sometimes reddish colouring, because only the red/light pigment phaeomelanin is produced.


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Faktor IX Deficiency | Haemophilia B (F9 Rhodesian Ridgeback)

Factor IX deficiency or haemophilia B (F9 deficiency) is a blood coagulation disorder. Factor 9 is a glycoprotein and plays an important role in the signalling cascade of blood clotting. When the disease occurs, there is a deficiency of factor 9, which causes the affected animals to show symptoms such as intense and prolonged bleeding when injured (e.g. also after surgery).

This genetic variant of the disease occurs in the Rhodesian Ridgeback. Other genetic variants are known in Airedale Terriers, Cairn Terriers, Hovawarts and Labrador Retrievers. The disease is inherited in an X-linked recessive manner.

Synonym: Christmas disease

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Fascinating coat colours

Welche Fellfarbe ein Pferd hat, wird schon während der Entwicklung des Embryos im Mutterleib festgelegt. Die Anweisungen dafür liegen in den Genen verschlüsselt. Die Fellfarbe wird von vielen Genen bestimmt, die sich gegenseitig beeinflussen. Aktuell sind 11 verschiedene Gene bekannt. Diese Gene sind in verschiedenen Entwicklungsstadien aktiv und lösen unterschiedliche Aktionen aus. Abweichungen hiervon, führen zu der Vielfalt in den Fellfarben, die wir heute kennen.

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Fawn | Sable (Coat colour A-Locus Dog)

The dog is sand-coloured or light brown with black hair tips all over the body. This colouration is caused by the Ay allele of the Agouti locus.


See: Agouti (Coat colour A-Locus Dog)

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Foal Immunodeficiency Syndrome (FIS Horse)

In Foal Immunodeficiency Syndrome (FIS), affected foals cannot produce antibodies. This nonfunctional immune system leads to anemia and early death.

The disease occurs in Fell and Dales ponies and is inherited autosomal recessively.

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Frame Overo (Coat colour pattern Horse)

With Frame Overo Spotting, the horse has a distinct, horizontal orientation of white patches and a coloured back. The pattern is very variable in appearance, sometimes with very little or no white. Often there is a blaze with more white in the forehead region. Blue eyes and a coloured upper lip are also possible. The term "frame" indicates that the white patches usually do not exceed the back when viewed from the side.


Horses with one copy (O/n) show the spotting. Horses with two copies of the mutation (O/O) are affected by OLWS (Overo Lethal White Syndrome) and die within a few days after birth due to constipation colic.

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Friesian Dwarfism (FD Horse)

Frisian dwarfism (FD) causes abnormal growth of the legs and chest, resulting in severe health problems. The disease is inherited autosomal recessively.

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